The subject of this project is research of only-childness in the Czech Republic from the point of view of reproductive strategies and reproductive behaviour, to research the layout of this family type and find out the character of the people who have or want to have just one child, try to define the reasons of preferred number of children. People who want to live to see their parenthood can do it with one child. Not having a second or third child seems to be conditioned by the fears of decreasing the existing child's quality of life and the inability to sustain sufficient sources for another child. In the international academic discourse, British sociologist Hakim (2000, 2001, 2003a, 2003b) tried to explain (through her theoretical concept of preferential theory) concrete reasons for changes in reproductive behaviour. There are two opposite aspects in the Czech Republic, cultural and economical, which she tries to find and explain reasons why people do not want to have children, or have a low number of children.
The project combines qualitative and quantitative approach. The data are collected on the basis of qualitative representative research of the population aged 20–40. The collection of the data was carried out from 22nd October to 25th of November 2005 within the grant GA403/05/0800 – Family, work and reproductive strategies – preferential theory in the Czech Republic (coordinator prof. Rabušic). The chosen method of data analysis is multinominal logistical regression. The qualitative research is aimed at communication partners aged 30–35 with a child who do not want to have another one, or at people who plan to have just one child. We also plan to return to the communication partners and build on the original interviews and follow the development and changes in the situation after 4–5 years.