The book Czechoslovak City in Past and Present: Everydayness – Representations – Research brings together nine chapters concentrated on social change which is studied and examined in the framework of urban space: its changing organisation, mechanisms of its production and its management and control. Besides the themes of urban mobility and differentiation or segregation of urban space, the studies deal especially with the interpretation of these spaces by their users and inhabitants. The ways that people use to make sense of the places in their everyday interactions and also in political and power negotiations, can be perceived as significant manifestations of social change in urban space. The spaces – their materiality – are stable in principle, but for every other generation of users the cultural meanings might change. Some places become less and less important – as for example the old routes of early industrial city – as they finally slowly disappear. In other cases the reconstructions or demolitions of houses, streets or districts might demonstrate the manifestations of newly build social order. The book presents a broad variety of approaches by authors anchored in different disciplines, from history, sociology and anthropology to social geography and its aim is then to cross the traditional boundaries between branches of social scientific research. The book is intended to academics and students, as well as other experts or practitioners interested in multidisciplinary studies of urban space.
Kniha reflektuje, jak lidé v České republice zažívají a vnímají nejistoty ve vztahu k placenému zaměstnání a jak se s nimi vyrovnávají. Jak s tím souvisí jejich individuální předpoklady, kulturní a sociální faktory, stejně jako institucionální kontext, zejména jak politika zaměstnanosti napomáhá k překonání nejistot. Výchozí hypotézou je předpoklad o diferenciaci a polarizaci nejistot na trhu práce, jež se promítají v řadě dimenzí včetně kvality práce a ve formách flexibility uplatňovaných ve strategiích na trhu práce i ve veřejných politikách.
Infertility is a defining experience in an individual biography. It disrupts the assumptions and expectations, expecially the assumption of fertility and control over the reproductive powers of body. The paper focuses on the experience of couples with infertility. Its goal is to show how couples handle the problem and which roles are taken when confronted with infertility, within a specific social context. The study is dividend into three parts: in the begining we sum up how partners are affected by constraints lifting access to the methods of assisted reproduction in Czech Republic and how they react to these constraints. In the second part of the text we describe the role sof men and women in resolving infertility. And in the third part, we focus on partner negotiations regarding possible solutions for resolving infertility and how they approach two main solutions in infertility, adoption and assisted reproduction. The analysis is based od the data from more than 30 qualitative, in-depth interview with men and women.
Fertility rates as the basic biological assumption of social continuity is now legally in the visual field of social sciences. On the other hand, the phenomena arising from the edge of the various forms of cohabitation or partnership blending the different forms of parenting and other relationships may be the kind of research neglected while they are also an important source of household behavior and transformations of social reproduction.
In this issue we devote individualization as a process in which strong bonds cease traditional society, increasing personal freedom, the possibility of elections and the radius of the individual, living in modern society. As is analytically difficult to distinguish between individualization and individualism as its result, we do not want to exclude texts that would cover the social and cultural contexts and expressions of individualism.
The publication follows on the conference ‚City: In/Seizable Commonplace‘, which took place at the Faculty of Social Studies, Masaryk University, in November/December 2007. It contains ten chapters that introduce a variety of approaches to studying the cities anchored in different disciplines.
The book contributes to interdisciplinary discussion on theorizing and researching contemporary migration events departing from paradigm shifts in migration studies that question established conceptual, analytical and methodological approaches. Papers in this volume reflect a move away from static and bounded concepts and methodologies towards more mobile and unbound perspectives on contemporary migration events. The aim of the book in the first instance is to enrich the discussion on the complexity of migration theorizing, researching and policy-making.
This monotematic issues of Social Studies focuses on the concept and phenomenon of transnationalism.
What is the return of the Czech women in the labour market after the parental leave like? What influences their behaviour? Which problems to they face and how do they deal with them? How do they perceive the current family policy in the Czech Republic? These are the basic questions of this publication. In the theoretical level, we elaborate on the makro- as well as on the micro-social context of the problem whereas the second part of the publication is based on the qualitative research on the given topic.
The chapter questions sometimes easily built connections between acquiring gender equality and reproduction of certain desired types and changes of other undesired types of masculine identities in the Czech Republic these days. The argument is largely based on two in-depth qualitative analyses of men employed in environment protection or ecological education, and of fathers on parental leave in the Czech Republic (research studies conducted in 1999–2001, respectively 2004). Both of these tracks in the life-course of men can indicate changes towards more gender equal arrangements as various other studies in the euroamerican cultural context have shown (Connell, Holter to name at least one of each). Reflecting the totalitarian past and its impact on Czech masculinities, the text points to clashes between individual mens actions and the overwhelming presence of societal structures gendered in a particular way. The structures of masculine domination are critically reviewed on two examples: 1) the symbolic power of language and its means towards grasping alternative life-course trajectories in the narratives of the interviewed men, and 2) the ambiguity of any direct connection of environment protection and/or paternal leave with gender equality in individuals actions in the Czech Republic. The data available limit the presentation to university educated heterosexual men living in families (with children), nevertheless the main goal is not to offer generalizable data on the Czech population, rather to point to trends in representations of Czech masculinities these days in respect to gender issues, based on the local context. Environment friendly men and fathers on parental leave can present a challenge to exploitative, misogynist forms of masculinities but they can also reproduce and even obtain forms that strongly support conventional mainstream essentialist approaches to gender (protective forms of masculinity or curtailed equality in families where childcare is shared but housework not etc.) supporting hierarchical gender relations. The presented analysis does not necessarily aim to bring new concepts or present unique individual experiences, rather it illustrates existing theoretical concepts (Harding, Butler, West/Zimmermann, Bem, Bourdieu, Badinter) on the particular Czech context. This may perhaps bring a bit different angle to the view represented by the countries reflected upon by these theorists, or it may come as a support of their views and conceptualisations and thus suggest to broaden their impact to countries that have only recently become again European citizens.
Chapter gives basic information about ageing issues and policies in Czech Republic.
This article deals with active ageing as a policy concept and its meanings in different cultures. We describe the Czech Republic and Poland, formerly communist states that experienced economic and political transitions in the 1990s and joined the European Union in 2004. Both countries are demographically similar, with ageing populations, but their understanding of active ageing as a policy issue are quite different. The methodology used was a meta-analysis of expert interviews and consultations. The results show that there is no comprehensive policy towards active ageing in Poland and the Czech Republic does not have an overall systemic vision based on the principles of active ageing. The debate on activity in old age focuses on labour market employment activity, neglecting most of the issues of social services, care-giving or just plain leisure. The lack of institutional mechanisms, fiscal limitations, discriminatory socio-cultural perceptions and an unfavourable economic climate have all constituted barriers to implementing active ageing strategies in the period analysed. However, it seems that the problem has been noticed and that demographic changes and the attitudes of the elderly in the future could bring forth a more wide-ranging discussion on active ageing.
The book analyses marriages by means of the concept of homogamy in the Czech Republic. The author deals with age, education, occupational and urban homogamy and introduces the trends in these homogamies.
Monograph on the problems of the family and the role of social policy in the Czech Republic.
Most of Central European countries remain these days, in-spite of entry into the EU and endless attempts of liberal oriented political minorities, ethnically defined countries with focus on ethnos except of demos. In Central European countries the process of national self-identification is still more on the ethnic and cultural side than on the civic and territorial one. Author argues that etnization of principles upon which the state is build does not lead to awaking of the exalted nationalism. This paper analyzes discourses that lead to systemic nationalization of the concept of citizenship in Central European countries. Author uses concepts of Jeffrey Alexander and his distinction of the core and out group within a society and evolutionist theory of Castles and Davidson to describe reasons behind deviation from egalitarian and inclusive concepts of citizenship. Author analyzes citizenship policies and trans-border affinities in Central Europe on the example of two countries – Slovakia and Hungary that are unfortunate examples of these phenomenons. Finally, author analyzes pre-conditions of shift from ethno-cultural to legal-political definition of a nation and potential for redefinition of the core solidarity based on ethnicity to core solidarity based on modern citizenship.
Publication presents sociological insight into concepts connected to chronological age and theory and survey on age discrimination and ageism in Czech society.
: Report from research The issue and prevention of discrimination of older people in Czech Republic. Results from focus groups interviews on the issue of age discrimination and on possible ways of its prevention.
This book presents the results of an extensive study of attitudes towards parenthood among young Czech men and women. The Czechs joined the European population decline a generation late. They first reacted to the changes that took place after the fall of Communism by postponing parenthood. Fifteen years later, this strategy has played out; now comes the moment of decision. The weight of the incentives and disincentives to parenthood depends on education, on whether they have a partner or not, and whether they already have children and how many. Attitudes differ between men and women; and the study finds a shift between the generation that was caught up in the changes, and the generation that came before it.
Partnership, parenthood and family are phenomena, which have become objects of many demography’s and sociology’s articles in the Czech Republic in last twenty years. These phenomena have been radically changing. This volume includes six articles, which describe changes in the research of partnership and parenthood in the Czech Republic.
The text thematises contemporary Czech fatherhood based on the experiences of couples that delivered their first child with both parents present. The research concentrates on the event of childbirth and the gender aspects of this stage of family life, and on the re/productive mechanisms of gender while analyzing the expectations and coping strategies of the parents described in the interviews.
The chapter in the book proposes terminological analysis of the terms „new social risk“ and provides brief description of the research topics and questions in this field. The context of this research analysis is czech public policy on the national and regional labour market.
This volume deals with the reflexion of the racist ideology, which became the result of knowledge about the conception of races. This volume explains how the discourse borders of this concept change. It describes the development from „color line“ to „culture line“. This volume also focuses on the role of the current phenomenon which is based on the DNA research.
The study is focused on sociological aspects of corruption. The author provides theoretical definitions of corruption based on sociological literature, explains the existence of clientelism and relations between corruption and social capital. Firstly, the author gives definition of corruption from four classical sociological aspects, the so-called public-office, public interest, market centered definition and definition derived from international treaties. The author provides modern theories of corruption developed by Ch. Hoffling and explains corruption in processes of social interaction, where the corruption is characterized as social relation, social process and finally as socio-economic net. Paper looks at corruption also from economic view according to economist Gary Becker, sociological view according to ideas of Max Weber and deals with social interdependence of economic behavior and economic interdependence of social behavior. Within the next chapters the author looks at corruption from the perspective of value s conflict, and deals with inequality and low social capital. Author suggests that corruption is one of outcomes of habitués of a modern citizen. Finally, author elaborates on corruption in post-communist countries and argues corruption emerged because of changes in societal structures.
Theories of transnational migration made clear that incorporation of migrants in a host society and maintaining attachments to their native country are not binary oppositions. In this book I employ Michel Foucault s theory of discourse as well as Pierre Bourdieu s reflexive sociology to reconstruct epistemological presuppositions which underlie various theories of transnational migration. I argue that theories of transnational migration during three waves of their formation switched from political and epistemological radicalism of critical anthropology to an ironic sociological criticism of methodological nationalism. This metamorphosis of interpretive strategies, from seeking a discovery of new historical realities to challenging the conceptual apparatus of major social scientific discourses, is explained as a result of internal dynamism of the scientific field. The first chapter delineates the ways in which various interpretive strategies of transnational migration emerged in the first wave of their formation. The second chapter emphasizes the relationships between the political and epistemological radicalism of critical anthropology and the constitution of transnational migration as an analytical object of anthropological research. In the third chapter I focus on the concept of transnational social fields taken up by theories of transnational migration to reformulate the processes of assimilation and identity formation by conceiving migrants simultaneous engagement in and orientation toward their original and new home. The book concludes with a discussion of the theoretical implications of my findings in the context of the reflective turn in social sciences.
The theoretically methodological theory submitted is concerned with theoretical basis for the research of political process dynamics in the complex environment of European social policy. The author comprehends the political process as a system of intentional social activities and decisions. The author proposes to consider chosen theoretical conceptions of determination in terms of their utilization in the research of political process dynamics. In doing so, he starts with the description of practical problems of political process researchers, who call attention to the evident fragmentarization of the social theory and to the lack of integral viewpoints explaining inconsistent results of empiric investigations.
Monothematic double issue of the Social Studies journal. Contains two blocks: Genereations and Life-Course. Introduces four texts of international authors and eight articles of Czech authors. “Generation“, intergenerational relationships and conflicts are problems which have been caused by some important social and cultural changes in the last decade. Population aging, the social state crisis, technological knowledge and other phenomena lead to these intergenerational changes. In our country this problem has also been affected by the political change in 1989.
This publication is a selection of papers presented at the conference Social reproduction and integration: ideals and limits held by the Institute for research on social reproduction and integration of the Faculty of Social Studies in November 2006. Papers in the conference proceedings reflect the actual state of knowledge in the field of inquiry into social processes important for biological and social survival of the society in the Czech Republic. These themes are also topics of dynamic elaboration in the context of European sociology and other social sciences including applied disciplines (public and social politics, social work) – the solved problems are important in the European context as well. The selected papers are divided into five sections devoted to the problems of social mobility and stratification, the changing forms of family and new patterns of intimacy organization, education and labour market as mechanisms of social exclusion and social inclusion, the problems of social identities and migration and also the spatial aspects of social exclusion.
This article tackles the issue of marital homogamy in the Czech Republic using paired-data gather in 2005 on a representative sample of people aged 20–40. The aim is to find an answer to the question whether homogamy or heterogamy has any practical meaning for people who live either in marriage or in cohabitation and explore the differences in opinions with regard to marriage, childcare, gender roles and the reconciliation of family and paid work. We hypothesize that heterogamous couples will be more distant in their attitudes than homogamous couples. The results point out that the homogamy and partners closeness in answers are not related. Few explanations are offered in the end as a possible answer to why the working hypothesis was rejected.
“The city is used by people: everyday routine, civic rituals, the rythm of the social space- all these phenomena make the identity of the city. The urban structure and the social behavior of the groups and individuals constantly influence each other. The city is created by people who live there and especially by people who experience the city.“ (Short, J. R.: The Urban Order. An Introduction to Cities, Culture, and Power).
Publication employs the conception of civic incorporation by Jeffrey Alexander for analyzing various aspects, dimensions and context of civic incorporation of ethnically defined collectivities.
The volume represents the first comprehensive and scholarly sound assessment of the sociopolitical and economic situation of marginalized groups in the post-communist Czech Republic in the English language. It also comprises a comparative aspect, taking into consideration the developments in other Central and Eastern European countries. As a whole, the volume represents a comprehensive case study of the development of the causes of social marginalization, and of conditions of the socially excluded, as well as related public policy responses in the Czech Republic. It applies a broad variety of methods from sociology, labour economics, social policy, social psychology, policy analysis, ethnology and other disciplines. It studies important dimensions of social exclusion and inclusion in Czech society, namely the position of marginalized groups in the labour market, incidence of poverty, neighbourhood and family conditions, formation of identities, media images, as well as various aspects of public policy reactions to these situations: social work, employment policies, the potential of political participation, and more complex policy endeavours.
Prison and prisoners subcultures are interpreted as a part of a larger gender structure.
Changes in marital and reproductive behaviour recorded in the Czech republic after 1990 indicate that we are witnessing growing plurality of lifestyles both in terms of partnership (nnmarried cohabitation, homosexual cohabitation and singles)and number of children (increase of childfree couples and one child families, decrease of two-children families with two parents). Majority of papers in this mograph are based on international comparative research entitled The Aceptance of Population-related Policies (PPA2) carried out in the CR in 2001. Aim of this research was to find out attitudes of adult populations towards demographic trends, to learn about motives for delayed marriages and parenthood and about perceived obstacles for having children. Ten chapters are divided into two parts. First one consists of papers dealing with some aspects of currnent Czech demographic transition. In the second part, there are papers reflecting Czech population development in the context which is created (sometimes unintended) by the state and its social and family policy.
A chapter in a joint publication of 14 scholars characterizing the state of the art on problems and problematisation of men and masculinities in the Czech Republic.
Development od the theory of the famaily since 19th century; contemporary sociological theories of the family; the family and inequality; marriage market, lova and sex; parenthood; the family, hosehold and economy; divorce and remarriage; the family and the individuation theory and postmoderna.
The aim of the publication, that summarizes the results of discussion between the specialists of employment services and academic workers, is to authentically describe and evaluate the purpose-built programs in the local labour markets. These programs form a significant part of the innovation of the current active employment policy towards cooperation with the private and the non-governmental, not-for-profit sectors. The editors try to keep two evaluative perspectives in the study. First, the monograph sees the discussed problems from the point of view of academic expert opinions. Second, it describes experiences and information from the practice of creation and realization of the employment policy on the local level. In the end the authors tried to compare both of these approaches, that lead to recommendations for practice and for further research. The aims of the monograph are also shown in the structure of the parts. The introductory section is dedicated to the significance of the local programs and rational suppositions of the process creation. The second section aims at the analysis of needs of the chosen categories threatened by unemployment, namely the problems of disabled people, women returning to the labour market after their maternity leave, people with low qualifications, and graduates. In the third section specialists from the interested employment offices present their experience with the local projects with the purpose of (re-)integration of these categories of people in the labour market. The conclusion brings a comparison of academic and practical point of view of the creation and realization of the purpose-built local programs.
The study deals with class analysis and social mobility. It deals with a definition of social classes in contemporary societies and shows how to measure social mobility when we deal with it.
The report deals with the concept of age discrimination – ageism in the Czech Republic. It includes a short intro-duction to the theory of age discrimination as well as a discussion of problems with its definition and issues relating to sources and typologies of inequalities. The empirical part of the report outlines the results of a repre-sentative survey of the population of the Czech Republic. The survey concentrated on subjective perceptions of the incidence of age discrimination in the Czech society and respondentsĺ personal experience with some of its forms. The research was aimed at mapping the situation in those areas of social life that appear to be most sensi-tive in respect of age discrimination: civil rights, employment and the labour market, the pension system and finally health and social care. The empirical data of the Ageism 2003 survey are supplemented with the secon-dary analysis of some older data and the analysis of documents, news items, legislative documents and policies. The report includes recommendations and suggestions relating to interventions that would help decrease the incidence of ageism in our population and prevent its further spread.